B. Milam as principal chief. On September 11, the Nation sent letters to Freedmen, notifying them of their loss of citizenship and voting rights. On average, our communications teams send out at least 30 news releases a month. [107], The state's 2006 per capita personal income ranked 37th at $32,210, though it has the third-fastest-growing per capita income in the U.S.[108] Oklahoma ranks consistently among the lowest states in cost of living index. [214] The First Friday Art Walk in the Paseo Arts District is an art appreciation festival held the first Friday of every month. A Cherokee language immersion school in Tahlequah, Oklahoma educates students from pre-school through eighth grade. Soil and water conservation projects markedly changed practices in the state and led to the construction of massive flood control systems and dams; they built hundreds of reservoirs and man-made lakes to supply water for domestic needs and agricultural irrigation. [citation needed], Attempts to create an all-Indian state named Oklahoma and a later attempt to create an all-Indian state named Sequoyah failed but the Sequoyah Statehood Convention of 1905 eventually laid the groundwork for the Oklahoma Statehood Convention, which took place two years later. Other Plays such as the Eagle Ford are geological rather than geographical. Cherokee County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. Cattle trails and cattle ranches developed as cowboys either drove their product north or settled illegally in Indian Territory. [223] Enid and Lawton host professional basketball teams in the USBL and the CBA. [79], Major land runs, including the Land Run of 1889, were held for settlers where certain territories were opened to settlement starting at a precise time. ], the modern Cherokee Nation has experienced an almost unprecedented expansion in economic growth and prosperity for its citizens. The Oklahoman, based in Oklahoma City, is the largest newspaper in the state and 54th-largest in the nation by circulation, with a weekday readership of 138,493 and a Sunday readership of 202,690. [42] On November 11, 1911, the temperature at Oklahoma City reached 83 °F (28 °C) (the record high for that date), then a cold front of unprecedented intensity slammed across the state, causing the temperature to reach 17 °F (−8 °C) (the record low for that date) by midnight. Caddoan Mississippian culture peoples lived in the eastern part of the state. In October 2011, Bill John Baker was elected Principal Chief for a four-year term. [144] In total, aerospace accounts for more than 10 percent of Oklahoma's industrial output, and it is one of the top 10 states in aerospace engine manufacturing. [109] The Oklahoma City suburb Nichols Hills is first on Oklahoma locations by per capita income at $73,661, though Tulsa County holds the highest average. The paper has operated nearly continuously since 1828, publishing editions in both English and the Cherokee syllabary (also known as the Sequoyah syllabary). Spiro Mounds, in what is now Spiro, Oklahoma, was a major Mississippian mound complex that flourished between AD 850 and 1450. [139], Though oil has historically dominated the state's economy, a collapse in the energy industry during the 1980s led to the loss of nearly 90,000 energy-related jobs between 1980 and 2000, severely damaging the local economy. The Cross Timbers, a region transitioning from prairie to woodlands in Central Oklahoma, harbors 351 vertebrate species. Upon settling in Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma) after the Indian Removal Act, the Cherokee people established a new government in what is now the city of Tahlequah, Oklahoma. [164] In 2004, the state ranked 36th in the nation for the relative number of adults with high school diplomas, though at 85.2 percent, it had the highest rate among Southern states. In 2012 the House passed HCR 1024, which would change the state motto from "Labor Omnia Vincit" to "Oklahoma—In God We Trust!" [29] Oklahoma is on a confluence of three major American cultural regions and historically served as a route for cattle drives, a destination for Southern settlers, and a government-sanctioned territory for Native Americans. [59], Because of Oklahoma's position between zones of differing prevailing temperature and winds, weather patterns within the state can vary widely over relatively short distances, and they can change drastically in a short time. In the early 21st century, the tribe assumed control of W. W. Hastings Hospital in Tahlequah, previously operated by the US Indian Health Service. Twenty-five Native American languages are spoken in Oklahoma,[30] second only to California. Females made up 50.5% of the population. Severe drought is common in the hottest summers, such as those of 1934, 1954, 1980 and 2011, all of which featured weeks on end of virtual rainlessness and highs well over 100 °F (38 °C). [192] The collections of Thomas Gilcrease are housed in the Gilcrease Museum of Tulsa, which also holds the world's largest, most comprehensive collection of art and artifacts of the American West. Earlier voting in this year's election had been so close that the incumbent Chad Smith and challenger Bill John Baker, longtime Cherokee National Council member, had each twice been declared the winner. [38] The project includes five nearby houses in which native speakers will be invited to live, to facilitate interaction between native speakers and others at the facility. This lexicon consists of over 7,000 words and will continue to be extended with more Cherokee word listings. [42] The state is home to the Storm Prediction Center, the National Severe Storms Laboratory, and the Warning Decision Training Division, all part of the National Weather Service and in Norman. Interior Highlands, all regions prone to severe weather. McCabe discussed with President Theodore Roosevelt the possibility of making Oklahoma a majority-Black state. Joint Council of the Cherokee Nation and the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. Partially in the western extreme of the Upland South, it is the 20th-most extensive and the 28th-most populous of the 50 United States. After the dissolution of the tribal government of the Cherokee Nation in the 1900s and the death of William Charles Rogers in 1917, the Federal government began to appoint chiefs to the Cherokee Nation in 1919. [38], On June 14, 2004, the Cherokee Nation Tribal Council voted to officially define marriage as a union between a woman and man, thereby excluding same-sex marriage. The state's lowest point is on the Little River near its far southeastern boundary near the town of Idabel, which dips to 289 feet (88 m) above sea level. [31] Because of its position in the center of the United States, Oklahoma is also among the top states for logistic centers, and a major contributor to weather-related research. Although the founding families were Cherokee by blood from 1850 and into contemporary periods the community has evolved into a distinct multi-tribal band with large percentages of Yowani Choctaw, Chickasaw and Muscogee Creek Indians. A simmering crisis continued over Byrd's creation of a private, armed paramilitary force. [267][268] In terms of traffic, R. L. Jones Jr. (Riverside) Airport in Tulsa is the state's busiest airport, with 335,826 takeoffs and landings in 2008. [46] The 1994 Federal Legislation AIRFA (American Indian Religious Freedom Act) defines an Indian as one who belongs to an Indian Tribe, which is a group that "is recognized as eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their status as Indians.". Usually land was open to settlers on a first come first served basis. [citation needed]. Following the Cherokee Nation's adoption of a constitution in 1975, it excluded from tribal membership those Mount Tabor descendants whose ancestors had remained a part of the physical Mount Tabor Indian Community in Rusk County, Texas. [62], Over almost all of Oklahoma, winter is the driest season. [220], Oklahoma has teams in basketball, football, arena football, baseball, soccer, hockey, and wrestling in Oklahoma City, Tulsa, Enid, Norman, and Lawton. [155], According to Forbes magazine, Oklahoma City-based Devon Energy Corporation, Chesapeake Energy Corporation, and SandRidge Energy Corporation are the largest private oil-related companies in the nation,[156] and all Oklahoma's Fortune 500 companies are energy-related. [130][131], Oklahoma is host to a diverse range of sectors including aviation, energy, transportation equipment, food processing, electronics, and telecommunications. The resolution challenged celebrities who claim Cherokee ancestry (Examples are in the "List of self-identified Cherokee". These groups are further divided into several Service Areas which provide governmental services to the Cherokee people. 8.9% of Oklahoma's population was of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin (they may be of any race). Cherokee is a city and county seat of Alfalfa County, Oklahoma, United States. [275], The Legislature of Oklahoma consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. Many theories, though none proven, abound about the origin of the name "Cherokee". Oklahoma (/ˌoʊkləˈhoʊmə/ (listen))[26] is a state in the South Central region of the United States,[27] bordered by the state of Texas on the south and west, Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, New Mexico on the west, and Colorado on the northwest. [49] It denounced further state or federal recognition of so-called Cherokee tribes or bands. The State of Oklahoma recognized that Byrd's activities were breaches in state law. Cherokee (ᏣᎳᎩ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ, Tsalagi Gawonihisdi [dʒalaˈɡî É¡awónihisˈdî]) is an endangered-to-moribund Iroquoian language and the native language of the Cherokee people. The Cherokee Nation strongly opposes further federal or state recognition of other Cherokee groups. [259], Oklahoma has a few ethnic-oriented TV stations broadcasting in Spanish and Asian languages, and there is some Native American programming. [150], Ten years later in 2019, 53.5 % of electricity was produced from natural gas and 34.6 % from wind power. The ruling "did not limit membership to people possessing Cherokee blood," as some freedmen and their descendants had never intermarried with Cherokee. [29] As of 2014[update], the Cherokee Seed Project of the Natural Resources Department offers "two breeds of corn, two kinds of beans (including Trail of Tears beans), two gourds and medicinal tobacco" to Cherokee Nation members. The nation also supports the Cherokee Nation Film Festivals in Tahlequah and participates in the Sundance Film Festival in Park City, Utah. [54] Cherokee descendants of the Mount Tabor Indian Community must trace lineal descent from one or more of the six progenitor families. [76] Slavery in Indian Territory was not abolished until 1866. [45], Due to Oklahoma's location at the confluence of many geographic regions, the state's climatic regions have a high rate of biodiversity. The state's third-largest media market, Lawton-Wichita Falls, Texas, is ranked 149th nationally by the agency. [69] The territory was a part of the Arkansas Territory from 1819 until 1828. [10] The tribe has also conducted litigation using this name. The Ozark and Ouachita Mountains rise from west to east over the state's eastern third, gradually increasing in elevation in an eastward direction. [83] On November 16, 1907, President Theodore Roosevelt issued Presidential Proclamation no. To qualify, an applicant had to sufficiently prove that he or she was married in accordance with Cherokee law, and who at the time of the marriage was a recognized citizen by blood of the Cherokee Nation. On June 20, 1997, his private militia illegally seized custody of the Cherokee Nation Courthouse from its legal caretakers and occupants, the Cherokee Nation Marshals, the Judicial Appeals Tribunal, and its court clerks. Most of the state lies in an area known as Tornado Alley characterized by frequent interaction between cold, dry air from Canada, warm to hot, dry air from Mexico and the Southwestern U.S., and warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico. [13] The Federal authorities of the United States initially refused to intervene because of potential breach of tribal sovereignty. The tribe also includes descendants of Cherokee Freedmen, Absentee Shawnee, and Natchez Nation. The author of the resolution stated a constituent researched the Oklahoma Constitution and found no "official" vote regarding "Labor Omnia Vincit", therefore opening the door for an entirely new motto. During a ten-day run in Oklahoma City, the State Fair of Oklahoma attracts roughly one million people[213] along with the annual Festival of the Arts. With ancient mountain ranges, prairie, mesas, and eastern forests, most of Oklahoma lies in the Great Plains, Cross Timbers, and the U.S. Six men fell under this category, the first being A. In the opinion, Hembree stated that the 2004 law violated the Cherokee Constitution, which requires equal treatment of tribal citizens. [276][277], Oklahoma's judicial branch consists of the Oklahoma Supreme Court, the Oklahoma Court of Criminal Appeals, and 77 District Courts that each serve one county. [120] German has 13,444 speakers representing about 0.4% of the state's population,[120] and Vietnamese is spoken by 11,330 people,[120] or about 0.4% of the population,[120] many of whom live in the Asia District of Oklahoma City. It holds historical significance as both the first newspaper to be published by Native Americans in the United States and the first to be published in a Native American language. [42], The entire state frequently experiences temperatures above 100 °F (38 °C) or below 0 °F (−18 °C),[58] though below-zero temperatures are rare in south-central and southeastern Oklahoma. Jul 27, 2017 - Explore tammie's board "cherokee symbols , meanings" on Pinterest. [80] Those who broke the rules by crossing the border into the territory before the official opening time were said to have been crossing the border sooner, leading to the term sooners, which eventually became the state's official nickname. Cities and Towns Chapter 1—Oklahoma Municipal Code Article Article IV—Incorporation of Cities Section 4-101—Petition for Incorporation of City—Contents", "2016 Oklahoma Statutes Title 11. A Cherokee language name for Cherokee people is Aniyvwiyaʔi (ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯ), translating as "Principal People".Tsalagi (ᏣᎳᎩ) is the Cherokee word for the Cherokee language.. [33] This plan was part of an ambitious goal so that in 50 years, 80% or more of the Cherokee people will be fluent in the language. [157] The magazine also placed Devon Energy as the second-largest company in the mining and crude oil-producing industry in the nation, while Chesapeake Energy ranks seventh respectively in that sector and Oklahoma Gas & Electric ranks as the 25th-largest gas and electric utility company. This was based on their ancestors not having been recorded on the Final Rolls of the Five Civilized Tribes, as documented by the US government. [30], A major producer of natural gas, oil, and agricultural products, Oklahoma relies on an economic base of aviation, energy, telecommunications, and biotechnology. The percentage of Catholics is half the national average, while the percentage of Evangelical Protestants is more than twice the national average (tied with Arkansas for the largest percentage of any state). Byrd was required to attend a meeting in Washington, DC with the Bureau of Indian Affairs, at which he was compelled to reopen the courts. The phrase "Trail of Tears" originated from a description of the removal of the Choctaw Nation in 1831, although the term is usually used for the Cherokee removal. [42], Among the most geographically diverse states, Oklahoma is one of four to harbor more than 10 distinct ecological regions, with 11 in its borders—more per square mile than in any other state. Both University of Oklahoma and University of Tulsa are Tier 1 institutions, with the University of Oklahoma ranked 68th and the University of Tulsa ranked 86th in the nation. However, only Cherokee, if any, exhibits some language vitality at present. It was established in the 20th century and includes people descended from members of the Old Cherokee Nation who relocated, due to increasing pressure, from the Southeast to Indian Territory and Cherokee who were forced to relocate on the Trail of Tears. [134] In 2005, international exports from Oklahoma's manufacturing industry totaled $4.3 billion, accounting for 3.6 percent of its economic impact. Oklahoma has capital punishment as a legal sentence, and the state has had (between 1976 through mid-2011) the highest per capita execution rate in the nation. The Cherokee Nation council appropriates money for historic foundations concerned with the preservation of Cherokee culture, including the Cherokee Heritage Center. [46], Oklahoma has fifty one state parks,[49] six national parks or protected regions,[50] two national protected forests or grasslands,[51] and a network of wildlife preserves and conservation areas. The Oklahoma City bombing of April 19, 1995, in which Timothy McVeigh detonated a large, crude explosive device outside the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, killed 168 people, including 19 children. [253] Oklahoma's first newspaper was established in 1844, called the Cherokee Advocate, and was written in both Cherokee and English. [132] Poultry and swine are its second- and third-largest agricultural industries. On August 22, 2011, the Cherokee Supreme Court upheld the results of the 2007 special election. Spanish is the second-most commonly spoken language in the state, with 141,060 speakers counted in 2000. [103] Most people from Oklahoma who self-identify as having American ancestry are of overwhelmingly English and Scots-Irish ancestry with significant amounts of Scottish and Welsh inflection as well. [279] While each municipality operates as a separate and independent local government with executive, legislative and judicial power, county governments maintain jurisdiction over both incorporated cities and non-incorporated areas within their boundaries, but have executive power but no legislative or judicial power. [159], With an educational system made up of public school districts and independent private institutions, Oklahoma had 638,817 students enrolled in 1,845 public primary, secondary, and vocational schools in 533 school districts as of 2008[update]. [58] Oklahoma lies in a transition zone between semi-arid further to the west, humid continental to the north, and humid subtropical to the east and southeast. [66] Ancestors of the Wichita, Kichai, Teyas, Escanjaques, and Caddo lived in what is now Oklahoma. The Cherokee Nation operates Sequoyah High School and W. W. Hastings Hospital, both based in Tahlequah. [112], The state is in the U.S. Census' Southern region. By August 1997, it sent in state troopers and specialist anti-terrorist teams. The Oklahoma City Pride Parade has been held annually in late June since 1987 in the gay district of Oklahoma City on 39th and Penn. In the 20th century, the Cherokee passed a law to limit membership to descendants of those listed as "Cherokee by blood" on the Dawes_Rolls, excluding numerous African Americans and Afro-Cherokee who had been members of the tribe. Oklahoma Attorney General Mike Hunter released a joint statement with the Muscogee (Creek), Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw and Seminole … Moreover, increases in life expectancy have been below the national average. In Sand Springs, an outdoor amphitheater called "Discoveryland!" [28] It is also known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Cherokee is the location of the Cherokee IOOF Lodge No. [93][94], On July 9, 2020, the Supreme Court of the United States determined in McGirt v. Oklahoma that the reservations of the Five Tribes, comprising much of Eastern Oklahoma, were never disestablished by Congress and thus are still "Indian Country" for the purposes of criminal law. Oklahoma has teams in several minor leagues, including Minor League Baseball at the AAA and AA levels (Oklahoma City Dodgers and Tulsa Drillers, respectively), hockey's ECHL with the Tulsa Oilers, and a number of indoor football leagues. [114], In Oklahoma, cities are all those incorporated communities which are 1,000 or more in population and are incorporated as cities. On May 15, 2007, the Cherokee Nation Tribal Courts reinstated the Cherokee Freedmen as citizens while appeals were pending in the Cherokee Nation Courts and Federal cCourt. Tulsa is the base for the Tulsa Revolution, which plays in the American Indoor Soccer League. [179] The politician Edward P. McCabe encouraged Black settlers to come to what was then Indian Territory. cast on a CBS Omnibus television broadcast. [87] Jim Crow laws had established racial segregation since before the start of the 20th century, but Tulsa's Black residents had created a thriving area. The Constitution had always restricted elected governmental positions to persons of Cherokee blood. What do you see as the significance of … Kent Carter, The Dawes Commission and the Allotment of the Five Civilized Tribes, 1893–1914 (Orem, Utah: Ancestry.com, 1999). [270], Oklahoma is connected to the nation's rail network via Amtrak's Heartland Flyer, its only regional passenger rail line. [75] The Cherokee Nation had an internal civil war. [247] The largest osteopathic teaching facility in the nation, Oklahoma State University Medical Center at Tulsa, also rates as one of the largest facilities in the field of neuroscience. Tribal governments are recognized by the United States as quasi-sovereign entities with executive, judicial, and legislative powers over tribal members and functions, but are subject to the authority of the United States Congress to revoke or withhold certain powers. [95], The United States Census Bureau estimates Oklahoma's population was 3,956,971 on July 1, 2019, a 5.48% increase since the 2010 United States Census.[97]. In the last-named sport, the state's most notable team was the Tulsa Talons, which played in the Arena Football League until 2012, when the team was moved to San Antonio. [28][33][34], In the Chickasaw language, the state is known as Oklahomma', in Arapaho as bo'oobe' (literally meaning red earth),[35] Pawnee: Uukuhuúwa,[36] and Cayuga: Gahnawiyoˀgeh.[37]. This means the state of Oklahoma produces an average of 38,278-degree-holders per completions component (i.e. In the process, railroad companies took nearly half of Indian-held land within the territory for outside settlers and for purchase. The Mount Tabor Indian Community was recognized as a tribe by the State of Texas in 2017. [169], Oklahoma holds eleven public regional universities,[170] including Northeastern State University, the second-oldest institution of higher education west of the Mississippi River,[171] also containing the only College of Optometry in Oklahoma[172] and the largest enrollment of Native American students in the nation by percentage and amount. James Mooney's History, Myths and Sacred Formulas of the Cherokees, printed in 1900 states that color symbolism played an important part in shamanistic system of the Cherokees. D. S. Otis, The Dawes Act and the Allotment of Indian Land, ed. [236], Regular LPGA tournaments are held at Cedar Ridge Country Club in Tulsa, and major championships for the PGA or LPGA have been played at Southern Hills Country Club in Tulsa, Oak Tree Country Club in Oklahoma City, and Cedar Ridge Country Club in Tulsa. It currently stretches from Oklahoma City to Fort Worth, Texas, though lawmakers began seeking funding in early 2007 to connect the Heartland Flyer to Tulsa.[271]. The interactions between these three contrasting air currents produces severe weather (severe thunderstorms, damaging thunderstorm winds, large hail and tornadoes) with a frequency virtually unseen anywhere else on planet Earth. Every single county in Oklahoma has been won by Republican candidates in presidential elections since 2004. This period was known as the Dust Bowl, throughout which areas of Kansas, Texas, New Mexico and northwestern Oklahoma were hampered by long periods of little rainfall, strong winds, and abnormally high temperatures, sending thousands of farmers into poverty and forcing them to relocate to more fertile areas of the western United States. [158], The 27th-most agriculturally productive state, Oklahoma is fifth in cattle production and fifth in production of wheat. [84], The new state became a focal point for the emerging oil industry, as discoveries of oil pools prompted towns to grow rapidly in population and wealth. [215] Additionally, an annual art festival is held in the Paseo on Memorial Day Weekend. [67][68], The Spaniard Francisco Vázquez de Coronado traveled through the state in 1541,[69] but French explorers claimed the area in the 1700s. Chuck Trimble, a former executive director of the National Congress of American Indians, characterized the decision as the "Cherokee Dred Scott Decision", for depriving a group of citizenship.[21]. While W.W. Keeler served as Chief of the Cherokee Nation, he also was Chairman of the TCAB Executive Committee. Other companies in Tulsa include Heller Theatre and Tulsa Spotlight Theater. [274] State officials are elected by plurality voting in the state of Oklahoma. Tulsa eventually became known as the "Oil Capital of the World" for most of the 20th century and oil investments fueled much of the state's early economy. But today there are more than 150 public-use airports, 2001 for in... Operates Sequoyah high school and W. W. Hastings Hospital, both based in Tahlequah, Oklahoma in! Comprises the Tahlequah, which he calls Cherokee Heritage center community who outside. The southeastern United States to determine tribal citizenship eligibility Dance Society the Stomp Dance Society Stomp. 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'S energy costs were eighth-lowest in the Union Franklin d. Roosevelt confirmed the election in 1941 in Cherokee Nation two... [ 269 ] Oklahoma has been won by Republican candidates in Presidential elections since.... Results of the Cherokee Nation, with 141,060 speakers counted in 2000 Muskogee, and elected! Residents are known as the Eagle Ford are geological rather than geographical 2012 ) ' is. The base for the general public and community language programs to foster use of the Cherokee Nation [! Oklahoma ranked last among the States Cherokee descendants of the Cherokee Nation is committed to preserving and the. [ 69 ] the tribe also includes descendants of the top ballet in... Regions western Oklahoma contains three primary Interstate highways paramilitary force opinion was held justices., literally meaning red people '' National Museum, which plays in the 2009–10 school.... First come first served basis send out at least 30 news releases a month York Times rates Tulsa... 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